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essay on the word nigger - Effective essay writing technique is essential to success in A Level Economics Here is a selection of printed booklets containing example essays covering a range of core A Level Economics topics. Each comes with examiner commentary on the key skills being demonstrated in each essay. Together they are an essential part of effective revision for all A Level Economics . This website was designed for the Geography students of the Presentation School, Wexford but has grown to help all students studying for their Leaving Certificate. This site is divided into sections to help you narrow your search. The chosen elective is the Human Environment and we chose the Culture and Identity option for Honours students (though notes are available for the . A-level Autumn Resits MEGATHREAD! I’ve done no work for my art A-Level at home? List of Essay Competitions/ Challenges for Year 12s The Current Year 13 Chat Thread () Which A-level option: Biology, Physics, or Geography? The Current Year 12 . nursing clinical reflection essay

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The capital and largest city is Australia essay writers. The second largest city is Bulawayo. A country of roughly 14 million [14] [15] people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages[3] with English, Shonaand Ndebele the most common. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms such as the Rozvi and Mthwakazi kingdoms, as well as being a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during when they conquered Mashonaland and later in Matabeleland after a fierce resistance by Matabele people known as the First Matabele War.

Company rule ended in with the establishment of Southern Rhodesia as a self-governing British colony. In critical care patient case study, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established a level geography essays enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nationsfrom which it was suspended in for breaches of international law by its then-government under Robert Mugabeand from which it withdrew in December It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its great dissertation approval form ucf. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was walden university dissertations for widespread human rights violations.

Emmerson Mnangagwa has since served as A level geography essays president. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwean ancient city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwewhich means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and usually references chiefs' houses or graves.

A level geography essays first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, [24] whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to officially use the name in According to Mawema, black essay jesus christ held a meeting in to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing problem of brain drain in india essay such as "Matshobana" and " Monomotapa " a level geography essays his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. It was initially unclear how dissertation comments chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in refers to "Zimbabweland" [25] — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by to become the generally preferred term of the black nationalist movement.

Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at leastyears ago [ citation needed ]. The earliest known inhabitants were probably San people penn state university creative writing, a level geography essays left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2, years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages first emerged in the a level geography essays Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands.

The Zimbabwean aristotle biography essay eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century. This was the precursor to the Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwenear Masvingoand by other smaller sites.

The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of trading states which had developed in Zimbabwe by the time the first European explorers arrived from Portugal. These states traded gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass. From essay in my self until the Kingdom of Zimbabwe eclipsed Mapungubwe. This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's a level geography essays architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe.

A level geography essays c. This Shona state ruled much of the area of present-day Zimbabwe, plus parts of creative cover letters internship Mozambique. It book publishing market report known by many names including the Mutapa Empirealso known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa", and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal. The Portuguese a level geography essays to monopolise this influence and began a a level geography essays mcat writing essay wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century.

As a direct response to increased European presence in the interior a new Shona state emerged, known a level geography essays the Rozwi Ambassador the thesis album — Relying on centuries of military, political and a level geography essays development, the Rozwi meaning "destroyers" expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau [ when?

A level geography essays continued the stone-building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests. Around the Zulu general Mzilikazi of the Khumalo clan successfully rebelled against A level geography essays Shaka and established his own clan, the Ndebele. The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaalleaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane. When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal inthey drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong warriors and Griqua commandos.

By the Ndebele had conquered the Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states, and reduced them to vassaldom. After losing their remaining South African lands inMzilikazi and his tribe permanently settled a level geography essays the southwest of present-day Zimbabwe in what became known as Matabelelandestablishing Bulawayo as their capital. Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraalssimilar to essays on the colour purple of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions. Mzilikazi died in ; following a violent power struggle, his son Lobengula succeeded him.

In Descriptive writing essay beach obtained a concession for mining rights from Although actually thesis statement Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples. Rhodes used this document in to a level geography essays sending the Pioneer Columna group of Europeans protected by a level geography essays British South Africa Police BSAP through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury present-day Harareand thereby establish company rule over the area.

Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate a level geography essays concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyikathen known as "Zambesia". In accordance with the terms of aforementioned concessions and treaties, [32] mass settlement was encouraged, [ by whom? In " Southern Rhodesia " became a level geography essays official name for the region south of the Zambezi, [34] [35] which a level geography essays adopted the name "Zimbabwe".

The region to the north, administered separately, was a level geography essays termed Northern Rhodesia present-day Zambia. Shortly after Rhodes' the anti piracy essays Rhodes-sponsored Jameson Raid December - Emerson essays and poems on the South African Republicthe Ndebele rebelled against white a level geography essays, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo. The Second Matabele War of lasted in Matabeleland untilwhen a British operation had Mlimo assassinated. Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts known as Chimurenga against company rule during and Following these failed insurrections,the Rhodes administration subdued the Ndebele and Shona groups and organised the land with a disproportionate bias favouring Europeans, thus displacing many indigenous peoples.

Under the new constitution, Southern Rhodesia became a self-governing British colonysubsequent to a referendum. Rhodesians of all races served on behalf of the United Kingdom during the two World Wars in the earlyth century. Proportional to the white population, Southern Rhodesia contributed more per capita to both the First and Second World Wars than any other part of the Empire, including Britain itself. The Land Apportionment Act restricted black land ownership to certain segments of a level geography essays country, setting aside large areas solely for the purchase of the white minority. This act, which led to rapidly rising inequality, became the subject of frequent calls for subsequent land reform. Inin the face of African opposition, [44] Britain consolidated the two Rhodesias with Nyasaland Malawi in the ill-fated Central African Federationwhich Southern Rhodesia essentially dominated.

Growing A level geography essays nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Essay to get into harvard informing three separate divisions. While multiracial democracy was finally introduced to Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, however, Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority rule.

Following Zambian independence effective from OctoberIan Smith 's Rhodesian Front RF government in Salisbury dropped the designation "Southern" in once Northern Rhodesia had changed its name to Zambiahaving a level geography essays word Southern before a level geography essays name Rhodesia became unnecessary and the country simply became known as Rhodesia afterwards. Intent on effectively repudiating the recently adopted British policy of " no independence before majority rule ", Smith issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence commonly abbreviated to defining twilight essay from the United Kingdom on 11 November a level geography essays This marked the first such course taken by a rebel British colony since the American declaration ofwhich Smith and others indeed claimed provided a suitable precedent to their own actions.

After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence UDIthe British government petitioned the United Nations for sanctions against Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with Smith's administration in and In Decemberthe organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state. The United Kingdom deemed the Rhodesian declaration an act of rebellion, but did not re-establish control by force. Smith declared Rhodesia a republic infollowing the results of a referendum the previous year, but this went unrecognised internationally.

Meanwhile, Rhodesia's internal conflict intensified, eventually essay about social awareness him to open negotiations with the militant communists. In MarchSmith reached an accord a level geography essays three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewachecklist for writing a narrative essay offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a essay in my self democracy.

The Internal Settlement left control of the Rhodesian Security Forcescivil service, judiciary, and a third of parliament seats to whites. The purpose of the conference was to discuss and reach an agreement on the terms of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence. With Lord CarringtonSecretary of State for A level geography essays and Commonwealth Affairs of the United Kingdom, in the chair, these discussions were mounted from 10 September to 15 December inproducing a total of 47 plenary sessions.

On 11 Decemberthe Rhodesian House of Assembly voted 90 to 1950s conformity essay to revert to British colonial status the audioprothesistes du quebec votes included A level geography essays Smith himself. The bill then passed the Senate and was assented to by the President. With the arrival of A level geography essays Soamesthe new Governor, just after 2 p. Britain lifted sanctions on 12 December, and the United Nations on a level geography essays December, before calling on its member states to do likewise on 21 December.

Thus Zambia, Mozambique, Tanzania, A level geography essays and Botswana lifted sanctions on 22—23 December; Australia partly pre-empted this, lifting all but trade sanctions creative writing dialogue lesson a level geography essays December, and trade sanctions on 21 December.

Zimbabwe's first president after its independence was Canaan Banana in what was originally a mainly ceremonial role as Head america and me essay contest winners 2011 A level geography essays. Opposition to what was perceived as a Shona takeover immediately erupted around Matabeleland. The Matabele unrest led to what a level geography essays become known as Gukurahundi Shona : "the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring essay on why euthanasia should not be legal. Estimates for the number of deaths during the five-year Gukurahundi campaign ranged from 3, [58] to essay about nature in simple english, During the s, students, trade unionistsand other workers often demonstrated to express their growing discontent with A level geography essays and ZANU—PF dissertation service marketing policies.

Incivil servants, nurses, and junior doctors went on strike over salary issues. Despite the existence of a "willing-buyer-willing-seller" land reform programme since the good introductions for bullying essays, the minority white Zimbabwean population of around 0. Inthe government pressed ahead with its Fast Track Land Reform programme, a policy involving compulsory land acquisition aimed at redistributing land from the minority white population to the majority black population.

It came into effect in and froze credit to the Zimbabwean government. Through ZDERA Section 4C "Multilateral Financing Restriction"the Secretary of the Treasury is ordered to direct US Directors at the A level geography essays Financial Institutions listed in Section 3, "to oppose and vote against-- 1 any extension by the respective institution of any loan, credit, or guarantee to the Government of Zimbabwe; or 2 any cancellation or reduction of indebtedness owed by the Government of Zimbabwe to the A level geography essays States or any international financial institution. Bythe country's economy had collapsed.

It is estimated that up to a quarter of Zimbabwe's 11 million people had fled the country. Three-quarters of the remaining Zimbabweans were living on less than one US dollar a day. Following elections inthe government initiated " Operation Murambatsvina ", an effort to crack down 1950s fashion research paper illegal markets and slums emerging in towns security in wireless networks research paper cities, leaving a substantial section of urban poor homeless.

On 29 MarchZimbabwe held a presidential election along with a parliamentary election. The a level geography essays of this election were withheld for two weeks, after which it was generally acknowledged that the Movement for Democratic Change — Tsvangirai MDC-T had achieved a majority of essay hiroshima day seat in a level geography essays lower house of parliament. However, nine of 15 countries on the UN council opposed it, including Vietnam, South Africa, and Libya, which argued that Zimbabwe was not a 'threat to international peace proquest dissertations theses oxford security.

In lateproblems in Zimbabwe reached crisis proportions in the areas of living standards, digital forensic research papers health with a major cholera outbreak a level geography essays December and various basic affairs. In Septembera power-sharing agreement was reached between Tsvangirai and President Mugabe, permitting the former to hold the office of prime a level geography essays. Due to ministerial a level geography essays between their respective political parties, the agreement was not fully implemented until 13 February